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Thursday, January 22, 2015

Research Paper on Animal Testing

Jillian Blye
Mrs. Boudreau
Honors English
Research Paper
What The Nightmares Of Animals Are Made Of
Caged, abused and injected with substances in order to form the most important research possible. Look into the traps and see the eyes of the innocent animals sitting and waiting for their lives to end. Animals wait patiently without knowing they are going to be in pain in just a few hours. Animals of all sizes are condensed into tiny cages without any room to move their limbs while they pray for their life to be over just because of the poor condition they have to live in. [The animals] “languish in pain, ache in loneliness and long to roam free and use their minds. Instead, all they can do is sit and wait in fear of the next terrifying and painful procedure that will be performed on them”(PETA). Not only are there mice tested on but also family pets. Many dogs and cats are used in the labs when they could be with a family instead. Animals suffer everyday in laboratories and some may even be a potential pet that many families would adore. Even though many say scientists have the animals lives in mind, there are very unnecessary tests done.
Over a thousand animals are brutally abused every year in laboratories for scientific research and later euthanized and discarded away. By the cruelty the animals endure and are treated during research, has led to the debate on whether animal testing
 is justified or not. There is an ongoing argument to whether animal testing should be continued or abolished due to the treatment happening on the animals. Some people believe animal testing is very beneficial in many ways while others think the complete opposite. The people that see animal testing as beneficial focus on the medical development aspect, such as drugs, treatments, surgeries and MRI’s as the number one reason to keep animal testing within research. The others who believe in stopping animal testing view the testing to be inhumane and against the Animal Welfare Act and rights of animals. The group of people who believe in animal testing yet does not, proves the points as to why. All sides of the argument have valid points, however not everyone knows of that brutality of the testing and how it could affect peoples daily lives.
Animal testing is a controversial topic that has facts for both sides on whether or not animal testing should be prevented or not. Animal testing is an act of using non-human animals in research, development projects or scientific experiments. The act of animal testing is very unnecessary and cruel. All living creatures should be treated with respect, even animals of the smallest form. No animal deserves to be living in a cage for their life and then only getting out of the cage to be tested on a drug that may or may not make it to the counters of a store. “Regardless of one’s feeling about animals, it is time for consumers and taxpayers to realize that vivisection wastes hundreds of millions of dollars annually and produces an inferior product”(Overton). No one knows the amount of money used for the testing itself. Not only are animals getting hurt but people do not know how much money their tax money goes to. Not only are just scientists using animals in research but so are many schools and colleges. Ohio State
University used $1.9 million dollars on heart attack experiments on dog even though dogs and humans have different elements that will change the experiment(peta.org).  The University of Wisconsin spent $3 million on fighting experiments on mice. Oregon National Primate Research Center spent $5 million on cruel obesity experiments on monkeys. Harvard University spent $16 million for cruel drug addiction experiments on monkeys. All the money that goes into animal testing could go into something more important that would not hurt animals or people. [American could] “provide $606 per month to the 2.2 million households in which senior citizens go to bed hungry” (mediapeta). [America could help out children and] “hire an additional 380,000 teachers to help educate America’s youth”(mediapeta). The money saved from animal testing could go to helping the homeless, veterans or children. There are better ways to use taxpayers money than on animals torture.
However, animals are being tortured every single day in a lab and  most people do not realize what the animals go through. Scientists do not mind using animals as long as the work is done even if that means poor or painful conditions, with “over 100,00 rats and mice are used in experiments every year for pharmaceutical research in the lab, where the temperature is kept at 24 degrees centigrade”(Ericson). Animals are being tested a numerous about of times day by day for drugs that may not even reach the counter of a store. Many of the “animals received tests for substances that will never actually see approve or public consumption and use”(Murnaghan). Whether people agree with animal testing or not, it is a gruesome way to find research on drugs.
Humans and animals have very similar characteristics, more than most people know about. With the same characteristics the two have means that both will react to the drug similarly. Animals are similar to humans and feel emotions such as fear when in a laboratory, compared to  how the animal will react  to the drug then when it is calm and relaxed. Researchers at McGill University and the University of British Columbia in Canada found out how mice react in the laboratory differently than other animals. Mice show the pain through a “grimace” on their face just like humans do when in pain. With researchers being able to physically see the pain in the rodents face, the researchers could eliminate unnecessary in the labs. Animals are introduced to a new environment when forced to live in a laboratory. There are also many animals that are born there so the animals grow up in an uncertain environment. Monkeys are tested in the laboratories because of their similarity to humans. Monkeys have learned to do things in the daily life just like humans do. Many “animal liberationists do not separate out the human animal, so there is no rational basis for saying that a human being has special rights. A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy. They’re all mammals”(Cobb 1-3).  Humans and animals should be viewed as the same, if researchers test on animals then why not humans? Many would argue that testing on humans would be useless because no one should waste a human life when there are animals.
Most animals that are being tested upon are being used for no reason. Animals are abused in the labs during experiments more than they should be. The sad reality is that “practically every present day protocol for the prevention, treatment, cure and control of disease, pain and suffering is based on knowledge attained through research with lab animals”(Fulkerson). Even though testing may help figure out cures of diseases, “another approach is to combine cells or tissues from animals with synthetic materials to build artificial model organisms”(Rosania). Combining the cells and tissues is a another way of testing drugs but perhaps less severe.

Figure 1

Blye 6

Figure 1 is a billboard shown to passing cars advertising animal testing in a very powerful way. Who would rather see the rat alive more than the little girl? The answer is no one. Every person who looked at this billboard knew the answer automatically but if they knew that the drugs that were tested on the animals could potentially hurt the little girl, do you think they would feel the same way? A lot of drugs that were deemed safe during animal testing ended up being lethal to humans. If a family pet was up on the billboard instead of the rat, the sign would be even more powerful.
Many drugs and medicines that were proven and tested safe on animals were later found to be lethal to humans of all ages. A drug called Oraflex was tested on animal and was proven safe, but soon there were cases of people with liver toxins and lead to over 60 deaths. A drug given to pregnant women in the 1950s as a famous teratogen caused many women to give birth to babies with limb-reduction effects. Even though some drugs are tested to be helpful and work on animals does not always mean they will have the same affect on humans. In fact, “according to some estimates adverse drug reactions are responsible for 2.2 million hospitalizations and 106,000 deaths annually”(Pippin and Sullivan). If more people knew about faults of the drugs and the way they change when used on a human, there could be a change to how people view animal testing. Why should humans use a drug if there is a chance that is could be harmful? Scientists do not know for sure if a drug is ever going to be helpful or harmful to humans until a person takes the drug.
Animals and humans are not the same. There are similarities, but the way humans act compared to how animals act is one of the main reasons why some experiments test differently and have side effects on humans rather than on animals. There is a 92% fail in human trials even when the drug was tested to work perfect when used on the animals(neavs.org). Since animals live in uncomfortable environments, the stress causes the product to not be completely correct. The way an animal is treated affects how it will react to a drug unlike when it is calm. Scientists have come to realize that no model or animal can replicate the human condition. It was found that “animal organ systems and cellular structure differ from human”(Cobb) and that is why drugs affect differently.
Animal testing had its breakthrough in 1922 when it allowed insulin to be isolated from dogs. From then on scientists realized that animals could be used for many other studies(Murnaghan). No one knew that even years later scientists would still be using animals in experiments daily. Even though scientists have had breakthroughs in research while using animals, it time to stop animal testing all together. With the standard research that is involved in any procedure there could also be a new way to test, which is “an organ on a chip”(Silicone rubber spells end of drug testing on animals). The chip was invented by a professor named Donald Ingber who placed the human cells and fluids on a tiny, flexible silicone rubber in order to find another way of testing. Many “animals can fail to predict in humans how drugs will work” because there  are not the same cells(Silicone rubber spells end of drug testing on animals). It is shown that “different animal species may give you different answers as to whether a drug is toxic for humans”(Hamilton). There are elements that will change the outcome of the testing due to the differences in animals. It is smarter to not use animals because of the difficulties presented when done. There will never be a hundred percent chance that a drug will work perfectly on humans.
Why is animal testing so two sided? A question many people wonder while reading all the cruel acts animals endure everyday. People view animal testing in two ways. One side sees what testing can help improve in the human life, while the other see the animals pain and fear. No one knows for sure if testing on animals is better or worse for the human life style. With many drugs causes death or sickness, people are starting to sway towards another form of research. Even though testing on animals has helped humans greatly and scientists were able to help humans in pain, there was also a lot of pain created by the drugs once tested on animals. The main reason to test on animals was for scientists to study how humans respond to drugs. However, if the drugs affect humans differently than animals, what’s the point to testing? If more people knew the facts on animal testing there would be less of a controversial discussion and more of a supporting demand.
With the research possible today there are many other ways to find cures. Animals do not need to partake in an experiment that is not beneficial to them. Humans                                                                                                                     need to help defend their furry friends instead of giving money to hurt them. Humans are blind to see what their shampoos, makeups or cleaning supplies are tested on. When people go to a store no one thinks to look at the bottle to see if it is tested on animals or not. More people need to open their eyes to the truth that mostly every daily product has been used on an animal. Every product has taken an animals life just so a person could use it. If more people knew what was happening to animals, what kinds of animals that were being tested and the torture they go through, there would be more support to stop animal testing immediately. Instead of pouring money into killing animals, humans can put their money to a more supportive cause. If more money went to research on different ways to test products, scientists would find a better solution than animals. Using animals in research is taking the easy way out. Most believe animals are the same as a human but they couldn't be more wrong. How many more people have to get sick or die from a drug that was tested to work on humans when in reality it did not.
Animal testing needs to be abolished from high schools, colleges, and any scientific lab research. Humans can figure out another way to test medicines and not bring pain to themselves or animals. Everyone would benefit if animal testing was stopped for good. There would be less animals being hurt and more given away to families. Also, less humans would get sick off of a drug they thought was helping them. Testing on animals is an inhumane act and should never have started in the first place. With new research, money and support there could be new ways of testing drugs in a less painful way. Animal testing needs to be stopped once and for all.

Gap Identification/Research Question: The world knows that animal testing is a continuous problem, affecting not only animals but humans too. There have been many articles on animal testing by adult writers. However, people from all ages have not stated their opinion on whether animal testing should be stopped or not or even if they know anything about it. I am going to show how different age groups feel about animal testing and if opinions have changed throughout the years. Different age groups have never been asked their opinion on the subject of testing. Younger ages may feel different than older in forms of why should testing still exist with the modern technology. What are the parallels and distinctions to age groups of eighteen and older and eighteen and younger regarding animal testing?

Methodology: I will be collecting information from people of different age groups. I will ask questions to the age groups about animal testing to see how much they know about the condition of animals. Most people do not know the cruelty animals go through every time an experiment is performed. I will ask questions regarding the people knowing if the products they use daily were tested on animals or not. Products such as shampoo, cleaning supplies, makeup and many more. Will people change what products they use after learning about animal testing?

Research Methods: I am going to interview two different age groups. In the older age group, I will interview my mother, father, sister, brother and friend Ashley. In the younger age group I will interview my friend Sabrina, Kylia, Lauren and Sam. I’m doing two separate groups because I want to find out if it matters what age you are and if the different age groups make the opinion on animal testing stop.

Findings: After interviewing my friends and parents, they all wanted to use products that were not tested on animals. It turns out that at least five products they use daily is tested on an animal and once they found that out they were shocked.  When interviewing my mother, I caught her when she was cleaning and she was using lysol. I asked her if she knew if it was tested on animals or not and she did not have an answer. She then looked at the back of the can and realized that the product was tested on animals. She then asked “aren't mostly all products tested on animals?”, sadly the answer is yes. My mother knew that a lot of products were tested on animals and she said that she will try and use some that are not after leaving about the torture. My father believes that animal testing is cruel and wrong but very helpful to find out information. My brother and sister didn’t want to hear of all the harsh punishments that animals get. They both felt bad for all the products they use that are tested on them. When interviewing my friend Ashley, she said that she thinks “its mean but she doesn't care as much if its on rats because there is a lot of them, however they should not test on monkeys”. She believes that should  come up with a way to not use animals. The older group was unaware of how cruel the animals are treated but knew that almost every product was like that. When interviewing the younger group, I first asked my friend Kylia on how much she knew about animal testing. Kylia actually just finished her own paper on animal testing so she knew of all the products that were used and the treatments. When talking to her she said, “I still find it fascinating that we test on animals, you think with the new technology in this world we would have something better by now”. I then interviewed my friends Lauren and Sabrina and both knew little to nothing on animal testing. They said that they “couldn't believe how people could be so cruel and that it should stop”.  The last friend I interviewed was my friend same, he said that he is now gonna try and stop using so many products that were tested on animals. “It’s unfair to do to them, nothing should be put through so much pain”.

Discussion/Conclusion: After the interview with the different age groups, I found out that people in the older group have less sympathy for the animals and don't mind as much. My father believes that “we need to test on animals cause if not, they would be testing on humans”. After he said this, I informed him of the chip that is created with human cells and he then googled it. I found that the younger group was more sympathetic to the animals than the older group was. Many of the people didn’t know how many products we use on a daily that are tested on animals, they felt terrible about it.

Works Cited

"Animal Testing." Animal Sciences. Ed. Allan B. Cobb. New York: Macmillan

         Reference USA, 2011. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

"Anti-vivisectionists condemn tests pledge." Times [London, England] 10 Nov. 2014:
         12.   Academic OneFile. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
Behrensdorf-Nicol, H., and B. Kramer. "Reduction of animal experiments in

        experimental drug testing (2014): 1173+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Nov.


Cohn, Meredith . "Alternatives to animal testing gaining ground" (August 6, 2010): 1.      Print.
Ericson, John. "The Price of Killing Off Animal Testing" (February 20, 1014): 1.


Fulkerson, Nathan . "Testing on animals leads to important medical breakthroughs"

         (April 6, 2011): 1-2. Print.

Hajar, Rachel. "Animal Testing and Medicine." Heart Views (2011). Print.
Moran , Jim, and Paul A. Locke. "Less testing on animals, better science " (April 8,

         2013): 1 .Print.

Murnaghan, Ian . "Using Animals for Testing: Pros Versus Cons" (November

         12,2014): 1-2. Print.

Newkirk, Ingrid. "Gore should drop support for new animal testing" (August 27,

        1999): 1-2. Print.

Rosania, Kara. "Synthetic research tools as alternatives to animal models." Lab

         Animal 42.6 (2013): 189+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Nov. 2014.

Santiago, Deyanira. "Not now; maybe later." Lab Animal 41.6 (2012): 151.

          Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Nov. 2014.

"Silicone rubber spells end of drug testing on animals." European Rubber
         Journal 1 Sept. 2014: 0009. General OneFile. Web. 6 Nov. 2014.

Monday, October 27, 2014

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Animal Testing

In  the editorial "Save the Animals: Stop Animal Testing", the author provides examples that show how people feel differently on the effect of animal testing or how animals are treated. This article is a combination of scientific studies and personal beliefs on animal testing and if it should be stopped or not. There are different biases that could work to prove if testing on animals is a good thing or not.

Belief bias is an effect where someone's evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by by the believably of the conclusion.  This bias is used throughout the article when the author gives his opinion on what he believes in. Tom Regan, a professor at North Carolina State University spoke his belief when stating, "Animals have a basic moral right to respectful treatment...this inherent value is not respected when animals are reduced to being mere tools in a scientific experiment". Tom believes that animals have right and though he knows people view animals differently, he is not afraid to say what he believes. He believes animals are violated and their rights are taken away when going thoguh testing , just like peoples would be. Tom Regan believes in how morally wrong animal testing is and thinks no one should be able to test on animals just to help themselves in the future.

Framing effect is drawing different conclusions from the same information, depending on how or by whom that information is presented. This effect shows how some people believe in animal testing while others do not. Many believe there is no need to test on animals. Animals are apart of their life and they never want to see any hurt. Other people mainly focus on what will come out of the testing and how it will benefit them in the future. If the testing leads to something new to them, they are all for it because it is helping them out. People will always have a say on what they believe is right and wrong when it comes to animal testing. Some scientists do not care about animals, they just want to find a new product to sell to customers. With all the same information, there is always two sides of the story. There will never be a happy medium between animal lovers and people who could care less about animals.

The belief bias and framing effect are only just two examples that could be taken out of this article. Animal testing is a very popular subject that has not come to one conclusion yet. There will always be arguments on animal testing and if it can be stopped or not. Many other biases or effects would explain the article of animal testing. The world will always be split in two when the argument has such a big outburst.


Monday, October 13, 2014

Checked Off Bucket List!

On my bucket list, I've always wanted to write a letter to a random address and see if the person who gets my letter will write back. I wrote a letter over the weekend and shipped it off in the mail. I am hoping to get a response back! 
I sent the letter to a place in California because I have always wanted to visit and talking to someone from there is the closest I can get right now. 

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

The Real Brett Stern

Do you know the real Brett Stern? Most people would say yes since he is very popular in school, however when sitting down and talking to him I learned a few things myself about who Brett really is. Yes he is the funny, outgoing guy everyone knows and talks about. When asked random questions he gave his best answer. 

      The sixteen year old was born on  January 26, 1998 in "some hospital in Walpole". Though he would rather be in Punta Cana because "you can do anything there", Brett spends his days in Norton making every one laugh around him. He is known to be the class clown and always have an opinion on every subject. He will always find a way to be a smile upon your face even when you're having a bad day. You would see him walking around the halls with pizza and minute maid fruit punch if offered to him. If given the opportunity he would become a girl for a day just to see what it would be like, or as he put it, "just so I could look at myself".  Even though he would become a girl for a day, he does not want to have any daughters in the future. He would like to have two boys because of the protective father he would become. He would not let his daughter out of sight because he wouldn't want her getting into trouble with boys. Even though girls are one of the things that make him happy, he believes the only girl he needs is his wife. Brett is very adventurous but once asked if he would steal a cop car he refused, especially if there was a snake around. Snakes are Bretts biggest fear and he simply states, "why dont you have any legs?". "If snakes do not live in the water then why dont they have any legs?". That is the question he is always pondering on. Brett shakes things off really easily but once asked what his most embarrassing moment was he automatically put his head down and laughed recalling the moment over in his head. In third grade during baseball he got two outs and walked into the dugout saying "yep, okay!" bowing his head. "Everyone pointed at me and laughed, it was like a movie...it was terrible". Though most think Brett is awesome and wouldn't change anything about him, he is not very happy with his eye color, "I just think blue are are better". If about to die, his last phone call would be to Morgan Freeman, " his voice would be the one I would want to hear before I died". Brett continued to make me laugh throughout the whole interview and made me appreciate learning about who he really is. 

Saturday, September 27, 2014

Incentives and Aesthetic Experience

A. Incentives govern human behavior because people usually do more work if they are getting something out of it. Most will do work if there is a reward involved, such as money. Money is a good incentive and probably the most positive because everything revolves around money. Even though people should do things such as favors out of the kindness of their heart, some will not because they are not getting rewarded for what they do. Parents have started using incentives for their children to learn and have seen a change in the way they act and grow. Incentives do work but always need to be used in the correct way and not to often or people will always expect a reward in return for good behavior.

B. An aesthetic experience I've had was when I went on a vacation in Maine. Maine has a beautiful landscape no matter where you drive. There is either an ocean or forest, both with amazing adventures within. I always vacation in Maine with my family, it is my second home where I feel the most comfortable. Maine was an aesthetic experience because I would wake up every morning to a sunny blue sky and the birds chirping. I walked out on my front porch, sat down and watched the boats pass by and see everyone on the beach. It was very relaxing and would do anything to have those moments again. Mornings like that make you think about the day ahead and how to bring the positivity upon others.

Monday, September 22, 2014

Bucket List

Short Term Bucket List:

Sculpt Clay: I would love to create anything out of clay and I heard it is also a relaxing experience.
Send a letter to a random address and see if they write back: I think it would be exciting to send a letter and get a response from someone new. A letter could make the person have better day.
Run in a hamster ball on the water: Running in a hamster ball always seemed super fun to me. I would love to run in the ocean because the waves would keep pushing you forward.
Go paint balling: Paint balling seems like a great way to get out anger and just have fun.
Go to college: I want to start my career and become successful in life.
Dress like a sumo wrestler and fight:This would be fun to do with friends and relieve stress
Go zip lining:Go zip lining through the woods or over water
Jump into a huge ball pit: I want to jump into a massive ball pit like years ago
Jump from a waterfall/ bridge: The excitement of jumping into the water and having it rush all over you.
Go scuba diving: I wanna swim with the fish
Get a massage: After volleyball season I will definitely need a massage!

Long Term Bucket List:

Get a tattoo: I want to get a tattoo to symbolize who I am
Vacation in Hawaii: I have always wanted to visit Hawaii, I heard it is beautiful.
See the Northern Lights: I would love to see the sky change different colors
Swim in an infinity pool: Swimming in this pool makes you seem like you are swimming in nothing at all, many are on top of roof tops.
Swim with dolphins: Dolphins are such lovable creatures and I could make them do tricks.
Visit the tunnel of love: The tunnel of love is all green and would be amazing to see in person
Volunteer at a animal shelter: I am a huge animal lover and would end up wanting to adopt every dog there.
Visit a cancer ward and help out: I love helping anyone I can and the best thing would to put a smile on a little kids face who is very sick.
Sing to an audience : I love to sing and I have always wanted to sing in Boston with a hat out in front of me, I would love to see who would stop and listen.